African-American Archive: The History of the Black Experience in Documents



African-American Archive: The History of the Black Experience in Documents

Uniform title

African-American Archive

This edition

"The African-American Archive: The History of the Black Experience in Documents". Ed. Kai Wright. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publications, 2001. xxiv+805 pp.

Other editions, reprints, and translations

Revised ed. as "The African American Experience":

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Table of contents

Introduction / Kai Wright

I. `20 & Odd Negroes': A Violent Beginning
● `They will display diligence' / Spanish Council of the Indies
● `Negros might easily be had on the coast of Guinea' / Richard Hakluyt
● `20 and odd Negroes' / John Rolfe
● `The one whose name is Elizabeth is to serve thirteene years' / Capt. Francis Pott
● The Freeman Anthony Johnson and his Family / Northampton County Court Records
● Black children to serve `according to the condition of the mother' / Virginia General Assembly
● Baptism is no exemption / Virginia Assembly
● An Act Concerning Negroes and Other Slaves / Maryland General Assembly
● 150 acres for `negroes as well as Christians' / Proprietors of South Carolina
● The Negro's and Indian's Advocate / Morgan Godwyn
● Correspondence from Fort James, Accra / The Royal African Company
● `They must have all my slaves and goods' / Thomas Woolman
● The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina / Founders of the South Carolina Colony
● `Sheep jump, jump for joy' / Carolina rice beating songs
● The Selling of Joseph / Samuel Sewall
● New York City revolt of 1712 / Governor Robert Hunter
● Rising tensions and clashing cultures / Dr. Francis Le Jau
● A Voyage to Guinea, Brasil, and the West Indies / John Atkins
● `The Most Fierce Enemies of the English' / Black fugitives of the English plantations
● Prohibiting the Importation and the use of Black Slaves or Negroes / The Trustees of the Georgia Colony
● The Darien Antislavery Petition / Eighteen Freeholders of New Inverness
● `He made you to live with himself above the sky. And so you will.' / John Wesley
● `She could not help praising and blessing God' / George Whitefiled
● Report of the Committee of Conference on the Case of the Negroes' Desertion to St. Augustine / South Carolina Assembly
● `The said Caesar was executed at the usual place and afterwards hung in chains' / South Carolina Gazette
● `St. Augustine...that Den of Thieves and Ruffians!' / South Carolina Assembly
● `They calling out Liberty, marched on with Colours displayed' / The Stono Rebellion
● `At least a hundred and fifty were got together in defiance' / William Stephens
● Prohibiting education to slaves / South Carolina Assembly
● The trial of Cuffe and Quack / Judge Daniel Horsmanden
● `Bars Fight' / Lucy Terry Prince
● `An Evening Thought' / Jupiter Hammon
● Some Memoirs of the Life of Job / Thomas Bluett
● `Uncommon Sufferings and Surprizing Deliverance' / Briton Hammon
● The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano / Olaudah Equiano

II. The Birth of African America: From Religion to Revolution
● `A Mullato man, named Crispus Attucks...killed instantly' / Samuel Adams
● `Such a rabble of Negroes, & C.' / John Adams
● A `peaceable and lawful' petition for freedom / Slaves of the town of Thompson, Massachusetts
● Thoughts upon slavery / John Wesley
● `This land will become a field of blood' / Thomas Rankin
● `The Executioner was savingly converted to God' / John Marrant
● `Roll, Jordan, Roll' / Revival songs
● The British offer freedom for service / Lord Dunmore
● Journal of a black Loyalist soldier / Boston King
● Salem Poor at Bunker Hill / Colonel William Prescott
● The Battle of Groton Heights / An unnamed source
● `A poem of the inhuman tragedy' at Lexington / Lemuel Haynes
● Poems on Various Subjects / Phillis Wheatley
● `To His Excellency General Washington' / Phillis Wheatley
● An Address to Miss Phillis Wheatly / Jupiter Hammon
● Rough draft of Declaration of Independence / Thomas Jefferson
● Notes on the State of Virginia / Thomas Jefferson
● `Three fifths of all other Persons' / The United States Constitution
● `Providence punishes national sins, by national calamities' / Constitutional Convention debate on slavery
● Petition for repatriation to Africa / Prince Hall African Lodge No. 1
● `The slavish fear of man' / Prince Hall
● `In what single circumstance are we different from the rest of mankind?' / A Free Negro
● An address to the negroes of the State of New-York / Jupiter Hammon
● `I freely and cheerfully acknowledge, that I am of the African Race' / Benjamin Banneker
● A plan to aide `our hitherto too much neglected fellow creatures' / Benjamin Franklin
● `Equal liberty was originally the portion, and is still the birth-right, of all men' / Benjamin Franklin
● `It introduces more evils than it can cure' / George Washington
● Fugitive Act of 1793 / United States Congress
● `It is my will and desire that all slaves whom I hold... receive their freedom' / George Washington
● `We believe heaven is free for all who worship in spirit and truth' / Richard Allen
● `It is unpleasant for us to make these remarks, but justice to our color demands it' / Richard Allen and Absalom Jones
● The First Baptist Church of Savannah, GA. / Andrew Bryan
● A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture / Venture Smith
● Thanksgiving Sermon / Absalom Jones
● `The sweets of Liberty' / African Methodist Episcopal Church Hymn

III. I Will Be Heard: Abolition and The Build Up to Civil War
● `No black or mulatto person shall be permitted to settle or reside in this state, unless he or she shall first produce a fair certificate... of his or her actual freedom' / Manumission Certificates
● `We will wade to our knees in blood sooner than fail in the attempt' / Gabriel's Conspiracy to Rebellion
● Back to Africa / Paul Cuffe
● `It is not asked for by us' / James Forten and Russell Perrott
● Establishing the Liberia colony / President James Monroe
● 36 degrees 30 minutes / Missouri Compromise
● `Your professed design was to trample on all laws, human and divine; to riot in blood, outrage, rapine, and conflagration' / Denmark Vesey's Revolt
● `I ask you, o my brethren!, are we men?' / David Walker's Appeal
● `I should arise and prepare myself, and slay my enemies with their own weapons' / Nat Turner's Confession
● `Address to the Free People of Colour of the United States' / Richard Allen
● The Hope of Liberty / George Moses Horton
● `The Slave Auction' / Frances E.W. Harper
● `I am sick of our unmeaning declamation in praise of liberty and equality; of our hypocritical cant about the unalienable rights of man' / William Lloyd Garrison
● `I will be heard!' / William Lloyd Garrison
● Declaration of Sentiments / The American Anti-Slavery Society
● `Thoughts on African Colonization' / William Lloyd Garrison
● `We know nothing of that debasing inferiority with which our very colour stamped us in America' / Letters from Liberia
● `All we want is make us free' / The Amistad Africans
● `If the man may preach...why not the woman? / Jarena Lee
● `There are no chains so galling as the chains of ignorance' / Maria Stewart
● `Like our brethren in bonds, we must seal our lips in silence and despair' / Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women
● `What is a mob?... Any evidence that we are wrong?' / Angela Grimke Weld
● `To instruct others is beneficial to the mind' / Ann Plato
● `I have come to tell you something about slavery---what I know of it, as I have felt it.' / Frederick Douglass
● `Brethren, arise! arise! Strike for your lives and liberties' / Henry Highland Garnet
● `The light broke in upon me by degrees' / Frederick Douglass
● `What is American slavery?' / Frederick Douglass
● The North Star / Frederick Douglass and Martin Delany
● `Ar'n't I a Woman?' / Sojourner Truth
● `Mrs. Bradford had a son about ten years old; she used to make him beat me and spit in my face' / Leonard Black
● A tale of escape and betrayal / Henry Bibb
● Abolition in the nation's poetry / Whittier, Lowell and Longfellow
● Fact meets fiction in the first black novel / William Wells Brown
● Another slavery compromise holds the union / Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
● Uncle Tom's Cabin / Harriet Beecher Stowe
● An ideological rift over the U.S. Constitution and Slavery / Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison
● `What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?' / Frederick Douglass

IV. A House Divided: Emancipation and The Civil War Era
● The Kansas-Nebraska Act / Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln: The Kansas Act — Abraham Lincoln on the Act
● ‘Crimes Against Kansas' / Charles Sumner
● Dred Scott v. Sanford / The United States Supreme Court
● A House Divided / Abraham Lincoln
● `Had I so interfered in behalf of the rich, the powerful...this court would have deemed it an act worthy of reward' / John Brown's Raid: Last words of John Copeland, a black raider — Black raider Dangerfield Newby's motivation — John Brown's last words
● `His Truth is Marching On' / Julia Ward Howe: ``Say, brothers, will you meet us'' — Union Marching song — The Battle Hymn of the Republic
● Our Nig / Harriet Wilson
● Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl / Harriet Jacobs
● A Georgia Plantation: ``What became of the Slaves on a Georgia Plantation?'' / Mortimer Thompson — Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation / Fanny Kemble
● Slavery's expansion `the only substantial dispute' / Abraham Lincoln
● A war for Emancipation / Frederick Douglass
● `We are ready to stand and defend our government' / Northern Blacks: April 1861 declaration by free blacks of New Bedford, Massachusetts — ``Fighting Rebels With Only One Hand,'' / from September 1861 issue of Frederick Douglass' Monthly (successor to The North Star)
● Debating `the duty of the black man' / ``R.H.V.’'’s argument against black participation — Alfred Green’s rebuttal
● `The uterus protruding, as large, yes larger than my fist; it has been so 10 years' / Life in the Contraband Camps: The health of freed slaves — Susie King Taylor's Reminiscences of My Life in Camp
● `Let my people go!' / African-American spirituals: “Go Down Moses” — “Down in the Valley”
● Confiscation and Militia Act / U.S. Congress
● `My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union' / Abraham Lincoln
● `All persons held as slaves within said designated states...are, and henceforward shall be, free' / The Emancipation Proclamation — New York Times editorial on the Proclamation
● `His body was left suspended for several hours' / The New York Draft Riot of 1863
● `Mortal men could not stand such a fire' / Massachusetts 54th Regiment
● `Niggers has riz in public estimation and are at a high premium': Blacks conscripted for manual labor — Defending his regiment's reputation — [Abraham Christian] Fleetwood leaves the forces angered by inequality
● `We have done a soldier's duty. Why can't we have a soldier's pay?' / Corporal James Henry Gooding
● `The longor you keep my Child from me the longor you will have to burn in hell and the qwicer youll get their' / Private Spotswood Rice: letter to his daughters — letter to his daughter’s owner
● The end of slavery / The 13th Amendment

V. Forty Acres and a Mule: Reconstruction and Its Aftermath
● `If he knows enough to be hanged, he knows enough to vote' / Frederick Douglass
● `I will indeed be your Moses' / Andrew Johnson
● The Last Speech / Abraham Lincoln
● `In the matter of government... no notice should be taken of the color of men' / The National Convention of Colored Men
● `We were and still are oppressed; we are not demoralized criminals' / New Orleans Tribune: Our Dormant Partners — Opposition to military rule
● Forty acres and a mule / Gen. William T. Sherman and the Freedmen's Bureau
● `They would like to have land-4 or 5 acres to a family' / Establishing the Freedmen's Bureau: Freeman Harry McMillan's testimony before the American Freedmen's Inquiry Commission — Congressional act establishing the Freedmen's Bureau
● Resettlement at Port Royal, South Carolina / Freedmen's Bureau records
● `We are left in a more unpleasant condition than our former' / Freed blacks of Edisto Island, South Carolina: The Edisto Island committee's statement to Howard — A Georgia labor contract
● `You enfranchise your enemies, and disenfranchise your friends' / A Confrontation at the White House
● `Any person who shall so intermarry...shall be confined in the state penitentiary for life' / Black Codes: Penal code — Vagrancy Law — Civil rights law — Apprentice Law
● The Civil Rights Battle of 1866 / U.S. Congress: Johnson's Freedmen's Bureau bill veto message — Civil Rights Act of 1866
● The 14th Amendment / U.S. Congress
● `It is useless to attempt to disguise the hostility that exist...towards northern men' / New Orleans Riot of 1866
● `We always told you...that it would be a great deal worse for your when they come' / Freedmen's Bureau records
● `Rebel states shall be divided into military districts' / The Reconstruction Act
● `Keep bright the council fires' / Union League of Alabama
● The 15th Amendment / U.S. Congress
● The Ku Klux Klan / Petitions from African Americans to Congress
● The New Black Laws / Benjamin W. Arnett
● Behind the Scenes / Elizabeth Keckley
● Iola Leroy / Frances Ellen Watkins Harper
● The Hazeley family / Amelia Etta Johnson
● Violets / Alice Ruth Moore (Alice Dunbar-Nelson)
● Oak and Ivy / Paul Lawrence Dunbar: ``Welcome Address'' — ``The Old Tunes'' — ``To Miss Mary Britton''
● `We wear the Mask' / Paul Lawrence Dunbar: ``We Wear the Mask'' — ``Sympathy''
● The Lynch Mob's `Thread-Bare Lie' / Ida B. Wells
● `A Negroe's life is a very cheap thing in Georgia' / Ida B. Wells
● A Black Woman of the South / Anna Julia Cooper
● Lifting as We Climb / Mary Church Terrell
● The `Atlanta Compromise' / Booker T. Washington
● Separate but equal / U.S. Supreme Court: Justice Brown's majority opinion — Justice Harlan's dissent
● Up From Slavery / Booker T. Washington
● `Tuskegee Song' / Paul Lawrence Dunbar: Dunbar's revised ``Tuskegee Song'' — Dunbar's letter to Washington
● `Lift every voice and sing' / James Weldon Johnson

VI. Talented Tenth: The Harlem Renaissance and The New Negro
● The souls of Black folk / W.E.B. DuBois
● `The Talented tenth' / W.E.B. DuBois
● `We refuse to allow the impression to remain that the Negro-American assents to inferiority' / The Niagra Movement
● `Silence Means Approval' / The National Association for the Advancement Of Colored People
● `Agitation is a necessary evil' / NAACP's The Crisis
● `The Trotter Encounter with Wilson. Talks to President as any American Should.' / William Monroe Trotter and Woodrow Wilson
● The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man / James Weldon Johnson
● `St. Louis Blues' / W.C. Handy
● `We protest the proposition that the pictured slander and disparagement of a minority race shall make licensed amusement' / Protesting ``Birth of a Nation'': Boston petition to mayor — Cleveland Advocate on Ohio movements to ban the film
● Stumping for the peanut / George Washington Carver
● `Stay on the soil' / The 1917 Tuskegee Conference and northern migration
● The most dangerous Negroes in the United States / Asa Philip Randolph and Chandler Owen
● The 24th colored infantry's Houston Uprising / The Baltimore Afro-American
● `We are cowards and jackasses if now that the war is over, we do not...battle against the forces of hell in our own land' / The Crisis
● Thirty Years of Lynching / The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
● The Red Summer of 1919 / Chicago Tribune
● `Africa for the Africans’ / Marcus Garvey: Garvey in the Negro World — UNIAs ``Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World''
● `If We Must Die' / Claude McKay: ``If We Must Die'' — ``The Lynching'' [omitted from 2009 edition]
● `T'aint Nobody's Business' / Bessie Smith: `T'ain't Nobody's Business if I Do' — Smith's mythical death by racism
● `Take the ``A'' Train' / Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn: ``It Don't Mean A Thing'' — ``Take the `A' Train''
● `A form that is freer and larger' / James Weldon Johnson
● `The Negro Speaks of Rivers' / Langston Hughes: ``The Negro Speaks of Rivers'' — ``The Weary Blues'' — ``Harlem'' (also known as ``A Dream Deferred'')
● `Yet Do I Marvel' / Countee Cullen: ``Yet Do I Marvel'' — ``To a Brown Boy''
● `How it Feels to Be Colored Me' / Zora Neale Hurston: ``Spunk'' — ``How it Feels to Be Colored Me''
● `Smoke, Lilies and Jade' / Richard Bruce Nugent
● The New Negro / Alain Leroy Locke
● `What I Want From Life' / Paul Robeson
● Criticism of Nigger Heaven / W.E.B. DuBois
● `The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain' / Langston Hughes
● `The Creation' / James Weldon Johnson
● `Strange Fruit' / Billie Holiday: ``Strange Fruit'' — ``God Bless the Child''
● Fighting for segregation or integration? / W.E.B. DuBois

VII. A Dream No Longer Deferred: The Civil Rights Movement
● 'A call to Negro America' / Asa Philip Randolph
● Executive order 8802 / Franklin D. Roosevelt
● 'Nonviolence vs Jim Crow' / Bayard Rustin
● Jesse B. Simple / Langston Hughes [omitted from 2009 edition]
● Native Son / Richard Wright
● Invisible Man / Ralph Ellison
● 'I'm a believer in fairy tales now' / Jackie Robinson: Wendell Smith's report on the first game — Jackie Robinson's column following his first major league game
● 'Equality of treatment and opportunity for all those who serve in our country's defense' / Harry Truman: To secure These Rights — Executive order 9981
● 'We real cool' / Gwendolyn Bennett: "The sonnet-ballad” from Annie Allen — "We real cool" from The Bean Eaters
● Go tell it on the mountain / James Baldwin
● 'Separate cannot be equal' / Brown v. Board of Education: Justice Marshall's oral argument — Chief Justice Warren's opinion
● 'There comes a time' / Martin Luther King, Jr.: King's December 5, 1955 speech launching the prolonged boycott — "The violence of desperate men" from Stride towards freedom
● 'Maybelline' / Chuck Berry
● A Raisin in the Sun / Lorraine Hansberry
● 'I stand upon the Fifth Amendment' / Paul Robeson: Robeson's testimony before the House Committee on Un-American Activities — Robeson's undelivered statement appearing before the committee, which he was not allowed to read
● 'Give us the Ballot' / Martin Luther King, Jr.
● `Through nonviolence, courage displaces fear' / The Student Sit-Ins of 1960-61: UPI story on the first Greensboro, N.C., sit-in — New York Times story on Nashville, Tenn., stores integrating
[omitted (replaced) in 2009 edition] — Founding resolution of SNCC
● `We have been cooling off for 350 years. If we cool off any more, we'll be in a deep freeze' / The Freedom Rides
● Lobbying Kennedy / NAACP
● How the `Blue-Eyed Devil' race was created / Malcolm X
● `I ain't no entertainer, and ain't trying to be one' / Miles Davis
● Letter from a Birmingham Jail / Martin Luther King, Jr.
● `Only a pawn in their game' / Bob Dylan [omitted from 2009 edition]
● `We shall overcome' / Freedom Songs: `We Shall Overcome' — `Oh, Freedom'
● `The time has come for this nation to fulfill its promise' / John F. Kennedy
● `I have a Dream' / Martin Luther King, Jr.
● `In Answer to Senator Thurmond' / Bayard Rustin
● `The chickens come home to roost' / Malcolm X
● The Civil Rights Act of 1964 / U.S. Congress

VIII. Say It Loud: Black Power and Beyond
● 'The Ballot or the Bullet' / Malcolm X
● Letter from Mecca / El-Haji Malik El-Shabazz (Malcolm X)
● The Greatest of All Time / Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay) with Alex Haley
● 'And I said "I want you to know something," I said, "If I live I will become a registered voter"' / Fannie Lou Hammer
● Bloody Sunday / The movement in Selma: President Johnson's speech to Congress — King's speech on the steps of the Alabama capital
● Voting Rights Act of 1965 / U. S. Congress
● A Eulogy for Malcolm X / Ossie Davis
● '"Get Whitey," scream blood-hungry mobs' / Watts riots of 1965: Watts residents speak to Los Angeles Times — Times offers shocked first person account from "a Negro"
● A 'Domestic Marshall Plan' / Whitney Young
● 'The deterioration of the negro family' / The Moynihan Report: The Moynihan Report — President Johnson's Howard University speech
● Black Power / Stokely Carmichael
● Kwanzaa / Maulana Karenga
● 'We believe this racist government has robbed us' / The Black Panther Party: Black Panther Party Platform and Program — Black Panther National Anthem
● Executive Mandate number one / Bobby Seale
● Vietnam: 'A time comes when silence is betrayal' / Martin Luther King, Jr.
● 'I ain't got no quarrel with them Viet Cong' / Muhammad Ali
● Soul on Ice / Eldridge Cleaver
● 'How many white folks you kill today?' / H. Rap Brown
● 'The Dutchman' / Amiri Baraka (Leroi Jones)
● The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual / Harold Cruse
● 'Nikki-Rosa' / Nikki Giovanni: "My poem" — "Nikki Rosa" — "Kidnap Poem"
● 'Say it loud (I'm black and I'm proud) / James Brown
● Divide and conquer / Federal Bureau of Investigation: Memo directing offices to target black nationalists — Memo suggesting tactic to divide SNCC and Black Panthers
● 'Two societies, one black, one white' / Kerner Commission Report
● 'We don't have no leader. We lost our leader' / The Washington Post on Martin Luther King's assassination and the 1968 Riots
● 'Niggers are scared of revolution' / The Last Poets
● A Caged Bird Singing / Maya Angelou: "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" — "And Still I Rise"
● 'ABC' / Jackson Five
● 'I am somebody' / Jesse Jackson
● The Tuskegee Syphilis Study / Associated Press
● 'Perhaps that 18th century Constitution should be abandoned to a 20th century paper shredder' / Barbara Jordan
● 'What is special? I, Barbara Jordan, am a keynote speaker' / Barbara Jordan
● Roots / Alex Haley
● Race as a factor, but no 'quotas' / Regents of University of California vs. Bakke
● Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman / Michelle Wallace

IX. Learning to Talk of Race: The Modern Era
● 'Rapper's Delight' / Sugar Hill Gang
● 'I know what it means to be called a nigger. I know what it means to be called a faggot' / Melvin Boozer
● 'The Imperialism of Patriarchy' / bell hooks
● The Color Purple / Alice Walker
● 'Womanist' defined / Alice Walker
● 'God Bless You Jesse Jackson' / The rescue of Lt. Robert Goodman
● 'The controversy over Jackson's remarks might have been much easier for many blacks to accept had the messenger been white' / Milton Coleman and the 'Hymietown' story
● 'Our time has come!' / Jesse Jackson
● `Man in the Mirror' / Michael Jackson [omitted in 2009 edition; replaced by Jackson’s “Thriller”]
● `Sucker MCs' / Run-DMC
● 'It is racist to suggest that the series is merely Father Knows Best in blackface' / Alvin Poussaint on the Cosby Show
● Beloved / Toni Morrison
● 'Len Bias is Dead...Traces of Cocaine Found in System' / Washington Post
● The War on Drugs / Mandatory Minimum Sentences: United Press International report on Los Angeles police efforts to stop gangs and "rock houses" — 1988 mandatory minimum sentencing law
● 'Fuck tha police' / Niggaz with Attitude (N.W.A.)
● 'Don't believe the hype' / Public Enemy
● 'Keep hope alive!' / Jesse Jackson
● Blacks three times as likely as whites to contract AIDS / U. S. Centers for Disease Control
● Coming Out / Linda Villarosa
● ‘The decoy of race’ / Stanley Crouch [omitted from 2009 edition]
● 'I will not provide the rope for my own lynching' / Clarence Thomas on Anita Hill: Clarence Thomas's statement in response to the charges — Anita Hill's opening statement
● 'I felt each one of those not guiltys' / Assault on Rodney King and 1992 riots: Transcript of police conversation — The Riots
● 'Learning to talk of race' / Cornell West
● 'The Inaugural Poem' / Maya Angelou
● Waiting to Exhale / Terry McMillan
● ‘Our music is a music of choice’ / Wynton Marsalis [omitted from 2009 edition]
● 'Please think of the real O.J.’ / O.J. Simpson
● The Million Man March / Louis Farrakhan
● 'Thirteen ways of looking at a black man' / Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
● 'Government-sponsored racial discrimination based on benign prejudice is just a noxious as discrimination inspired by malicious prejudice' / Justice Clarence Thomas
● 'What the United States government did was shameful, and I am sorry' / President Bill Clinton
● `The virtual whitewash with respect to network television and the continued segregation of opportunity... have again brought the NAACP to the forefront of this issue' / Kweisi Mfume [omitted from 2009 edition]
● `I rise to object!' / Congressional Black Caucus
[2009 edition adds 4 new items at end]
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