African American Experience



African American Experience

Uniform title

African-American Archive

This edition

"The African American Experience." Ed. Kai Wright. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2009. 736 pp.

Other editions, reprints, and translations

Revised version of "The African-American Archive". Ed. Kai Wright. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publications, 2001. xxiv+805 pp.

Table of contents

"20 & ODD NEGROES": A Violent beginning
● 'They will display diligence / Spanish Council of the Indies
● 'Negros might easily be had on the coast of Guinea / Richard Hakluyt
● '20 and odd negroes' / John Rolfe
● 'The one whose name is Elizabeth is to serve thirteene years' / Capt. Francis Pott
● The Freeman Anthony Johnson and his family
● Black children to serve 'according to the condition of the mother' / Virginia General Assembly
● Baptism is no exemption / Virginia Assembly
● An act concerning negroes and other slaves / Maryland General Assembly
● 150 acres for 'negroes as well as Christians' / Proprietors of South Carolina
● The negro's and Indian's advocate / Morgan Godwyn
● Correspondence from Fort James, Accra / The Royal African Company
● 'They must have all my slaves and goods' / Thomas Woolman
● The fundamental Constitutions of Carolina / Founders of the South Carolina colony
● 'Sheep jump, jump for joy' / Carolina rice beating songs
● The selling of Joseph / Samuel Sewall
● The New York City revolt of 1712 / Governor Robert Hunter
● Rising tensions and clashing cultures / Dr. Francis Le Jau
● A voyage to Guinea, Brasil, and the West Indies / John Atkins
● 'The most fierce enemies of the English' / Black fugitives of the English plantations
● Prohibiting the importation and the use of black slaves or negroes / The Trustees of the Georgia Colony
● The Darien antislavery petition / Eighteen freeholders of New Inverness
● 'He made you to live with himself above the sky. And so you will' / John Wesley
● She could not help praising and blessing God' / George Whitefiled
● Report of the Committee of conference on the case of the negroes' desertion to St. Augustine / South Carolina Assembly
● 'The said Caesar was executed at the usual place and hung in chains' / South Carolina Gazette
● 'St. Augustine...that den of thieves and ruffians!' / South Carolina Assembly
● 'They calling out liberty, marched on with colours displayed' / The Stono Rebellion
● 'At least a hundred and fifty were got together in defiance' / William Stephens
● Prohibiting education to slaves / South Carolina Assembly
● The trial of Cuffe and Quack / Judge Daniel Horsmanden
● 'Bars fight' / Lucy Terry Prince
● 'An evening thought' / Jupiter Hammon
● Some memoirs of the life of Job / Thomas Bluett
● 'Uncommon sufferings and surprizing deliverance' / Briton Hammon
● The interesting narrative of the life of Olaudah Equiano / Olaudah Equiano

THE BIRTH OF AFRICAN AMERICA: from religion to revolution:
● 'A mulatto man, named Crispus Attucks...killed instantly' / Samuel Adams
● 'Such a rabble of negroes, & C.' / John Adams
● A 'peaceable and lawful' petition for freedom / Slaves of the town of Thompson, Massachusetts
● Thoughts upon slavery / John Wesley
● 'This land will become a field of blood' / Thomas Rankin
● 'The executioner was savingly converted to God' / John Marrant
● 'Roll, Jordan, roll' / Revival songs
● The British offer freedom for service / Lord Dunmore
● Journal of a Black loyalist soldier / Boston King
● Salem poor at Bunker Hill / Colonel William Prescott
● The Battle of Groton Heights / An unnamed source
● 'A poem of the inhuman tragedy' at Lexington / Lemuel Haynes
● Poems on various subjects / Phillis Wheatley
● 'To his excellency General Washington / Phillis Wheatley
● An address to Miss Phillis Wheatley / Jupiter Hammon
● Rough draft of the Declaration of Independence / Thomas Jefferson
● Notes on the State of Virginia / Thomas Jefferson
● 'Three fifths of all other persons' / The United States Constitution
● 'Providence punishes national sins, by national calamities" / Constitutional Convention debate on slavery
● Petition for repatriation to Africa / Prince Hall and African Lodge No. 1
● 'The slavish fear of man' / Prince Hall
● 'In what single circumstance are we different from the rest of mankind?' / A free negro
● An address to the negroes of the State of New-York / Jupiter Hammon
● 'I freely and cheerfully acknowledge, that I am of the African race' / Benjamin Banneker
● A plan to aide 'our hitherto too much neglected fellow creatures' / Benjamin Franklin
● 'Equal liberty was originally the portion, and is still the birth-right, of all men' / Benjamin Franklin
● 'It introduces more evils than it can cure' / George Washington
● Fugitive Act of 1793 / United States Congress
● 'It is my will and desire that all slaves whom I hold...receive their freedom' / George Washington
● 'We believe Heaven is free for all who worship in spirit and truth' / Richard Allen and Absalom Jones
● The First Baptist Church of Savannah, Ga. / Andrew Bryan
● A narrative of the life and adventures of Venture / Venture Smith
● Thanksgiving sermon / Absalom Jones
● 'The sweets of liberty' / African Methodist Episcopal Hymn

I WILL BE HEARD: abolition and the build-up to civil war:
● 'No black or mulatto person shall be permitted to settle or reside in this state, unless he or she shall first produce a fair certificate...of his or her actual freedom' / Manumission Certificates
● 'We will wade to our knees in blood sooner than fail in the attempt' / Gabriel's conspiracy to rebellion
● Back to Africa / Paul Cuffe
● 'It is not asked for by us' / James Fortes and Russell Perrott
● Establishing the Liberia Colony / President James Monroe
● 36 degrees and 30 minutes / Missouri Compromise
● 'Your professed design was to trample on all laws, human and divine; to riot in blood, outrage, rapine, and conflagration' / Denmark Vesey's Revolt
● 'I ask you, O my brethren! Are we men?' / David Walker's appeal
● 'I should arise and prepare myself, and slay my enemies with their own weapons' / Nat Turner's confession
● 'Address to the free people of colour of the United States' / Richard Allen
● The hope of liberty / George Moses Horton
● 'The slave auction' / Frances E. W. Harper
● 'I am sick of our unmeaning declamation in praise of liberty and equality; of our hypocritical cant about the unalienable rights of man’ / William Lloyd Garrison
● 'I will be heard!' / William Lloyd Garrison
● Declaration of sentiments / The American Anti-slavery society
● 'Thoughts on African colonization' / William Lloyd Garrison
● 'We know nothing of that debasing inferiority with which our very colour stamped us in America' / Letters from Liberia
● 'All we want is make us free' / The Amistead Africans
● 'If the man may preach...why not the woman?' / Jarena Lee
● 'There are no chains so galling as the chains of ignorance' / Maria Stewart
● ' Like our brethren in bonds, we must seal our lips in silence and despair' / Anti-slavery Convention of American Women
● 'What is a mob? . . . Any evidence that we are wrong? / Angela Grimke Weld
● 'To instruct others in beneficial to the mind' / Ann Plato
● 'I have come to tell you something about slavery -- what I know of it, as I have felt it' / Frederick Douglass
● 'Brethren, Arise! arise! strike for your lives and liberties' / Henry Highland Garnet
● 'The light broke in upon degrees' / Frederick Douglass
● 'What is America slavery?' / Frederick Douglass
● The North Star / Frederick Douglass and Martin Delany
● 'Ar'n't I a woman?' / Sojourner Truth
● 'Mrs. Bradford had a son about ten years old; she used to make him beat me and spit in my face' / Leonard Black
● A tale of escape and betrayal / Henry Bibb
● Abolition in the nation's poetry / Whittier, Lowell, and Longfellow
● Fact meets fiction in the first black novel / William Wells Brown
● Another slavery compromise holds the Union / Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
● Uncle Tom's Cabin / Harriet Beecher Stowe
● An ideological rift over the U. S. Constitution and slavery / Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison
● 'What to the slave is the Fourth of July?' / Frederick Douglass

A HOUSE DIVIDED: emancipation and the Civil War era:
● The Kansas-Nebraska Act / Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln: A. The Kansas Nebraska Act; B. Abraham Lincoln on the Act
● 'Crimes against Kansas' / Charles Sumner
● Dred Scott v. Sanford / The United States Supreme Court
● A house divided / Abraham Lincoln
● 'Had I so interfered in behalf of the rich, the powerful...this court would have deemed it an act worthy of reward' / John Brown's Raid: A. Last words of John Copeland, a black raider; B. Black raider Dangerfield Newby's motivation; C. John Brown's last words
● 'His truth is marching on' / Julia Ward Howe: A. "Say, brothers, will you meet us"; B. Union Marching song; C. The Battle Hymn of the Republic
● Our nig / Harriet Wilson
● Incidents in the life of a slave girl / Harriet Jacobs
● A Georgia plantation / Mortimer Thompson and Fanny Kemble: A. "What became of the slaves on a Georgia Plantation?" ; B. Journal of a residence on a Georgia plantation
● Slavery's expansion 'The only substantial dispute' / Abraham Lincoln
● A war for emancipation / Frederick Douglass
● 'We are ready to stand and defend our government' / Northern Blacks: A. April 1861 declaration by free blacks of New Bedford, Massachusetts ; B. "Fighting rebels with only one hand" from September 1861 issue of Frederick Douglass' Monthly (successor to The North Star)
● Debating 'the duty of the black man' / Alfred Green and "R. H. V.": A. R. H. V.'s argument against black participation; B. Alfred Green's rebuttal
● 'The uterus protruding, as large, yes larger than my fist ; it has been so 10 years' / Life in the Contraband Camps: A. The health of freed slaves; B. Susie King Taylor's Reminiscences of my life in camp
● 'Let my people go!' / African-American spirituals: A. Go down Moses ; B. Down the valley
● Confiscation and militia act / U. S. Congress
● 'My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union' / Abraham Lincoln
● 'All persons held a slaves within said designated states...are, and henceforward shall be free' / The Emancipation proclamation: A. Emancipation proclamation ; B. New York Times editorial on the Proclamation
● 'His body was left suspended for several hours' / The New York Draft Riot of 1863
● 'Mortal men could not stand such a fire' / Massachusetts 54th Regiment
● 'Niggers has riz in public estimation and are at a high premium' / Christiam Abraham Fleetwood: A. Blacks conscripted for manual labor; B. Defending his regiment's reputation; C. Fleetwood leaves the forces angered by inequality
● 'We have done a soldier's duty. Why can't we have a soldier's pay?' / Corporal James Henry Gooding
● 'The longor you keep my child from me the longor you will have to burn in Hell and the qwicer youll get their' / Private Spottswood Rice: A. Spotswood Rice's letter to his daughters; B. Spotswood Rice's letter to his daughter's owner
● The end of slavery / Thirteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution

FORTY ACRES AND A MULE: reconstruction and its aftermath
● 'If he knows enough to be hanged, he knows enough to vote' / Frederick Douglass
● 'I will indeed be your Moses' / Andrew Johnson
● The last speech / Abraham Lincoln
● 'In the matter of notice should be taken of the color of men' / The National Convention of Colored Men
● 'We were and still are oppressed; we are not demoralized criminals' / New Orleans Tribune: A. Our dormant partners; B. Opposition to military rule
● Forty acres and a mule / Gen. William T. Sherman and the Freedmen's Bureau
● 'They would like to have land—4 or 5 acres to a family' / Establishing the Freedmen's Bureau: A. Freeman Harry McMillan's testimony before the American Freedmen's Inquiry Commission; B. Congressional act establishing the Freedmen's Bureau
● Resettlement at Port Royal, South Carolina / Freedmen's Bureau records
● 'We are left in a more unpleasant condition than our former' / Freed blacks of Edisto Island, South Caroline: A. The Edisto Island committee's statement to Howard; B. A Georgia labor contract
● 'You enfranchise your enemies, and disenfranchise your friends' / A confrontation at the White House
● 'Any person who shall so intermarry...shall be confined in the state penitentiary for life' / Black Codes: A. Penal code; B. Vagrancy Law; C. Civil Rights Law; D. Apprentice Law
● The Civil Rights battle of 1866 / U. S. Congress: A Johnson's Freedmen's Bureau bill message; B. Civil Rights Act of 1866
● The 14th Amendment / U. S. Congress
● 'It is useless to attempt to disguise the hostility that exist...towards northern men' / New Orleans Riot of 1866
● 'We always told you that it would be a great deal worse for you when they come' / Freedmen's Bureau records
● 'Rebel states shall be divided into military districts' / The Reconstruction Act
● 'Keep bright the council fires' / Union League of Alabama
● The 15th Amendment / U. S. Congress
● The Ku Klux Klan / Petitions from African Americans to Congress
● The new Black Laws / Benjamin W. Arnett
● Behind the scenes / Elizabeth Keckley
● Iola Leroy / Frances Ellen Watkins Harper
● The Hazeley Family / Amelia Etta Johnson
● Violets / Alice Ruth Moore (Alice Dunbar-Nelson)
● Oak and Ivy / Paul Lawrence Dunbar: A. "Welcome Address"; B. "The old tunes"; C. "To Miss Mary Britton"
● 'We wear the mask' / Paul Lawrence Dunbar: A. "We wear the mask"; B. "Sympathy"
● The lynch mob's 'thread-bare lie' / Ida B. Wells
● 'A negroe's life is a very cheap thing in Georgia' / Ida B. Wells
● A black woman of the south / Anna Julia Cooper
● Lifting as we climb / Mary Church Terrell
● The 'Atlanta Compromise' / Booker T. Washington
● Separate but equal / U. S. Supreme Court: A. Justice Brown's majority opinion; B. Justin Harlan's dissent
● Up from slavery / Booker T. Washington
● 'Tuskegee song' / Paul Lawrence Dunbar: A. Dunbar's revised "Tuskegee Song"; B. Dunbar's letter to Washington
● 'Lift every voice and sing' / James Weldon Johnson

TALENTED TENTH: The Harlem Renaissance and the New Negro
● The souls of black folk / W. E. B. Dubois
● 'The talented tenth' / W. E. B. Dubois
● 'We refuse to allow the impression to remain that the Negro-American assents to inferiority' / The Niagara Movement
● 'Silence means approval' / The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
● 'Agitation is a necessary evil' / NAACP's The Crisis
● 'The Trotter encounter with Wilson. Talks to President as any American should' / William Monroe Trotter and Woodrow Wilson at the White House
● Autobiography of an ex-colored man / James Weldon Johnson
● 'St. Louis Blues' / W. C. Handy
● 'We protest the proposition that the pictured slander and disparagement of a minority race shall make licensed amusement' / Protesting Birth of a Nation: A. Boston petition to mayor ; B. Cleveland Advocate on Ohio movement to ban the film
● Stumping for the peanut / George Washington Carver
● 'Stay on the soil' / The 1917 Tuskegee Conference and northern migration
● The most dangerous negroes in the United States / Asa Philip Randolph and Chandler Owen
● The 24th Colored Infantry's Houston uprising / The Baltimore Afro-American
● 'We are cowards and jackasses if now that the war is over we do not...battle against the forces of Hell in our own land' / The Crisis
● Thirty years of lynching / The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
● The red summer of 1919 / Chicago Tribune
● 'Africa for the Africans' / Marcus Garvey: A. Garvey in the Negro World ; B. UNIAs "Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World"
● 'T'aint nobody's business' / Bessie Smith: A. 'T'aint nobody's business if I Do' ; B. Smith's mythical death by racism
● 'Take the "A" train' / Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn: A. "It don't mean a thing"; B. "Take the 'A' train"
● 'A form that is freer and larger' / James Weldon Johnson
● 'The Negro speaks of rivers' / Langston Hughes: A. "The Negro speaks of rivers"; B. "The weary blues"; C. "Harlem" (also known as "A dream deferred")
● 'Yet I do marvel' / Countee Cullen: A. "Yet I do marvel"; B. "To a brown boy"
● 'How it feels to be colored me' / Zora Neale Hurston: A. "Spunk"; B. "How it feels to be colored me"
● 'Smoke, lilies and jade' / Richard Bruce Nugent
● The New Negro / Alan Leroy Locke
● 'What I want from life' / Paul Robeson
● Criticism of "Nigger Heaven" / W. E. B. Dubois
● 'The Negro artist and the racial mountain' / Langston Hughes
● 'The creation' / James Weldon Johnson
● 'Strange fruit' / Billie Holiday: A. "Strange Fruit"; B. "God bless the child"
● Fighting for segregation or integration? / W. E. B. Dubois

A DREAM NO LONGER DEFERRED: The Civil Rights Movement
● 'A call to Negro America' / Asa Philip Randolph
● Executive order 8802 / Franklin D. Roosevelt
● 'Nonviolence vs Jim Crow' / Bayard Rustin
● Native Son / Richard Wright
● Invisible Man / Ralph Ellison
● 'I'm a believer in fairy tales now' / Jackie Robinson: A. Wendell Smith's report on the first game ; B. Jackie Robinson's column following his first major league game
● 'Equality of treatment and opportunity for all those who serve in our country's defense': A. to secure these rights; B. Executive order 9981
● 'We real cool': A. "The sonnet-ballad from Annie Allen; B. "We real cool" from The Bean Eaters
● Go tell it on the mountain / James Baldwin
● 'Separate cannot be equal' / Brown v. Board of Education: A. Justice Marshall's oral argument; B. Chief Justice Warren's opinion
● 'There comes a time' / Martin Luther King, Jr.: A. King's December 5, 1955 speech launching the prolonged boycott; B. "The violence of desperate men" from Stride towards freedom
● 'Maybelline' / Chuck Berry
● A Raisin in the Sun / Lorraine Hansberry
● 'I stand upon the Fifth Amendment' / Paul Robeson: A. Robeson's testimony before the House Committee on Un-American Activities ; B. Robeson's undelivered statement appearing before the committee, which he was not allowed to read
● 'Give us the Ballot' / Martin Luther King, Jr.
● Them ain't local little niggers / Ted Poston [new to this edition]
● 'Through nonviolence, courage displaces fear' / The student sit-ins of 1960-61: A. The Register's coverage of the Greensboro, N.C. sit in [new to this edition, replacing other items]; B. Founding resolution of SNCC
● 'We have been cooling off for 350 years. If we cool off any more, we'll be in a deep freeze' / The Freedom Rides
● Lobbying Kennedy / NAACP
● How the 'Blue-eyed devil' race was created / Malcolm X
● 'I ain't no entertainer, and ain't trying to be one' / Miles Davis
● Letter from a Birmingham jail / Martin Luther King, Jr.
● 'We shall overcome' / Freedom songs: A. "We shall overcome" ' B. "Oh, freedom"
● 'The time has come for this nation to fulfill its promise' / John F. Kennedy
● 'I have a dream' / Martin Luther King, Jr.
● 'In answer to Senator Thurmond' / Bayard Rustin
● 'The chickens come home to roost' / Malcolm X
● The Civil Rights Act of 1964 / U. S. Congress

SAY IT LOUD!: Black power and beyond
● 'The ballot or the bullet' / Malcolm X
● Letter from Mecca / El-Haji Malik El-Shabazz (Malcolm X)
● The greatest of all time / Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay) with Alex Haley
● 'And I said "I want you to know something," I said, "If I live I will become a registered voter"' / Fannie Lou Hammer
● Bloody Sunday / The movement in Selma: A. President Johnson's speech to Congress; B. King's speech on the steps of the Alabama capital
● Voting Rights Act of 1965 / U. S. Congress
● A eulogy for Malcolm X / Ossie Davis
● '"Get Whitey," scream blood-hungry mobs' / Watts riots of 1965: A. Watts residents speak to Los Angeles Times; B. Times offers shocked first person account from "a negro"
● A 'domestic Marshall Plan' / Whitney Young
● 'The deterioration of the negro family' / The Moynihan Report: A. The Moynihan Report ; B. President Johnson's Howard University speech
● Black power / Stokely Carmichael
● Kwanzaa / Maulana Karenga
● 'We believe this racist government has robbed us' / The Black Panther Party: A. Black Panther Party platform and program; B. Black Panther National anthem
● Executive mandate number one / Bobby Seale
● Vietnam: 'A time comes when silence is betrayal' / Martin Luther King, Jr.
● 'I ain't got no quarrel with them Viet Cong' / Muhammad Ali
● Soul on Ice / Eldridge Cleaver
● 'How many white folks you kill today?' / H. Rap Brown
● 'The Dutchman' / Amiri Baraka (Leroi Jones)
● The crisis of the negro intellectual / Harold Cruse
● 'Nikki-Rosa' / Nikki Giovanni: A. "My poem"; B. "Nikki Rosa"; C. "Kidnap Poem"
● 'Say it loud (I'm black and I'm proud) / James Brown
● Divide and conquer / Federal Bureau of Investigation: A. Memo directing offices to target black nationalists; B. Memo suggesting tactic to divide SNCC and Black Panthers
● 'Two societies, one black, one white' / Kerner Commission Report
● 'We don't have no leader. We lost our leader' / The Washington Post on Martin Luther King's assassination and the 1968 race riots
● 'Niggers are scared of revolution' / The Last Poets
● A caged bird singing / Maya Angelou: A. "I know why the caged bird sings"; B. "And still I rise"
● 'ABC' / Jackson Five
● 'I am somebody' / Jesse Jackson
● The Tuskegee Syphilis Study / Associated Press
● 'Perhaps that 18th century Constitution should be abandoned to a 20th century paper shredder' / Barbara Jordan
● 'What is special? I, Barbara Jordan, am a keynote speaker' / Barbara Jordan
● Roots / Alex Haley
● Race as a factor, but no 'quotas' / Regents of University of California vs. Bakke
● Black macho and the myth of the superwoman / Michelle Wallace

● 'Rapper's delight' / Sugar Hill Gang
● 'I know what it means to be called a nigger. I know what it means to be called a faggot' / Melvin Boozer
● 'The imperialism of patriarchy' / bell hooks
● The color purple / Alice Walker
● 'Womanist' defined / Alice Walker
● 'God bless you Jesse Jackson' / The rescue of Lt. Robert Goodman
● 'The controversy over Jackson's remarks might have been much easier for many blacks to accept had the messenger been white' / Milton Coleman and the 'Hymietown' story
● 'Our time has come' / Jesse Jackson
● 'Thriller' / Michael Jackson [replaces Jackson's "Man in the Mirror" from first edition]
● 'Sucker Mcs' / Run-DMC
● 'It is racist to suggest that the series is merely Father Knows Best in blackface' / Alvin Poussaint on the Cosby Show
● Beloved / Toni Morrison
● 'Len Bias is dead...traces of cocaine found in system' / Washington Post
● The War on Drugs / Mandatory Minimum Sentences: A. United Press International report on Los Angeles police efforts to stop gangs and "rock houses"; B. 1988 mandatory minimum sentencing law
● 'Fuck tha police' / Nigga with Attitude (N.W.A.)
● 'Don't believe the hype' / Public Enemy
● 'Keep hope alive!' / Jesse Jackson
● Blacks three times as likely as whites to contract AIDS / U. S. Centers for Disease Control
● Coming out / Linda Villarosa
● 'I will not provide the rope for my own lynching' / Clarence Thomas on Anita Hill: A. Clarence Thomas's statement in response to the charges; B. Anita Hill's opening statement
● 'I felt each one of those not guiltys' / Assault on Rodney King and 1992 riots: A. Transcript of police conversation; B. The Riots
● 'Learning to talk of race' / Cornell West
● 'The inaugural poem' / Maya Angelou
● Waiting to exhale / Terry McMillan
● 'Please think of the real O.J.' / O.J. Simpson
● The million man march / Lous Farrakhan
● 'Thirteen ways of looking at a black man' / Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
● 'Government-sponsored racial discrimination based on benign prejudice is just a noxious as discrimination inspired by malicious prejudice' / Justice Clarence Thomas
● 'What the United States government did was shameful, and I am sorry' / President Bill Clinton
● 'I rise to object' / Congressional Black Caucus
● 'America is special among the nations' / Condoleeza Rice [new to this edition]
● 'George Bush doesn't care about black people' / Kanye West: A. Kanye West at the Red Cross Benefit; B. An oral history of Katrina survivor Tysuan Harris [new to this edition]
● 'This was the moment...where America remembered what it means to hope' / Barack Obama [new to this edition]
● I can no more disown him that I can my white grandmother / Barack Obama [new to this edition]

About the anthology

Includes texts up through 2008 both by African American authors and white American authors bearing on the African American experience.

See also

This anthology is designed to function as a sourcebook of primary materials for courses on African American history and culture. See also other similar anthologies:
Other similar works are designed more explicitly as textbooks (and so are not included here), though they may have a bit on an anthology element in them as well. See, for example:
● "Dream a World Anew: The African American Experience and the Shaping of America." Ed. Kinshasha Holman Conwill. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2016. 288 pp. (Published to commemorate the opening of the National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) in Washington, DC.)

Item Number


Item sets

Linked resources

Filter by property

Has Version
Title Alternate label Class
African-American Archive: The History of the Black Experience in Documents Other editions, reprints, and translations Bibliographic Resource
Title Alternate label Class
Freedom on My Mind: The Columbia Documentary History of the African American Experience See also Bibliographic Resource